Triticale for late autumn sowing
Taking into account tendencies in climate changes towards continentality escalation, new ways to ensure stable production of food grain are searched for. Creation of triticale varieties with late sowing in autumn and early sowing in “February windows” (temporary thaws in February – at the early of March) is quite promising. This allows plants to effectively use soil moisture, stages of plant organogenesis occur earlier, and, as a result, crucial periods of the plant development do not coincide with the most intense droughts and take place at lower air temperatures.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the yield capacity of triticale varieties and lines with late autumn sowing and to create wintering triticale lines with high grain yield and adaptability.
Methods. Field (to study the interaction of the object of research with biotic and abiotic factors); biometric and weighing (to determine grain yield); statistical (statistical processing of research results).
Results. The study on the productivity formation was carried out under late autumn sowing of triticale varieties and lines (the first decade of October) under conditions of Kharkiv region.
The yields of spring triticale varieties under late autumn sowing averaged over the years amounted to 5.11–6.13 t / ha. Moreover, they formed a large filled grain (weight of 1,000 grains is 42.1–47.2 g). The best yield indicators by the years of research was showed by the variety Boryvіter Kharkivskyi– 6.13 t / ha, which exceeded the standard Korovai Kharkivsky by 1.02 t/ha.
The highest yield under late autumn sowing was formed by two-handled cultivar Pidzymok Kharkivskyi and the line L5 (respectively 7.43 and 7.59 t/ha). They exceeded significantly the standard winter triticale variety Raritet by their yield (5.61 t/ha).
As a result of the assessment, eight complex valuable triticale lines suitable for late autumn sowing (wintering lines) were identified: TKhZ 12p-19, TKhZ 15p-19, TKhZ 16p-19, TKhZ 31p-19, TKhZ 39p-19, TKhZ 66p-19, TKhZ 68p-19 and TKhZ 96p-19. The lines are characterized by increased productivity, well-filled grain (8–9 points), resistance to lodging (optimal height is 96–111 cm). According to the growing season they are early and mid-ripening. The lines are resistant to damage by loose and hard smut, powdery mildew and have increased resistance to damage by stem rust, leaf rust and leaf septoria (7–9 points). Increased adaptability of the lines is ensured by cold resistance and drought resistance. Therefore, they are the most promising for growing in arid steppe regions at late autumn and winter sowing.
The use of triticale varieties and lines with increased productivity, resistant to lodging, suitable for late autumn sowing is important under conditions of increasing aridity of the climate and significant increase in the sowing area under row crops (corn, soybean, sunflower, etc.).
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