Formation of corn grain quality in different directions of use depending on the technology of growing in the Forest-steppe
Purpose. The aim of the research conducted during 2016-2019 was to determine the impact of technological methods on the indicators of corn grain quality to optimize the elements of growing technology depending on the directions of use in conditions of the Forest-Steppe natural zone of Ukraine. Methods – field, quantitative and weight, chemical, comparative and calculation, mathematical and statistical. Results. On the results of the research, dependences of formation of quality of grain on the content of protein, starch, fat in it and correlation dependencies between these indicators and yield of corn have been revealed. The best quality of grain of a forage and food direction is formed when applying high doses of mineral fertilizers, and for processing on bioethanol the optimal content of starch and protein is guaranteed at optimum and raised level of fertilizing. It was established that the content of protein, starch and fat had less effect on their yield from 1 hectare than the general yield level. The technologies of cultivation of different intensity as to their possible application for the production of grain of different directions of use with the given quality parameters, the yield of protein, starch, fat and bioethanol have been evaluated. Conclusions. The technology of corn growing with complex application of intensification elements in conditions of the Forest-Steppe zone, which includes introduction of N240P120K240 on the background of by-products of its predecessor, application of the soil and insurance herbicide, plant growth and micro-fertilizers is suitable for fodder and food purposes and ensured the yield of 12.1 t/ha of grain with protein content and yield – 10.56% and 1.28 t/ha, fat – 4.29% and 0.52 t/ha, starch – 71.27% and 8.62 t/ha. For processing on bioethanol effective is the technology of corn growing with the introduction of N180P120K180, by-products of the predecessor, soil herbicide and bio-stimulants, which provided a yield of 9.76 t/ha of grain with a starch content of 72.26% for the yield of 7.05 t/ha and yield of bioethanol at the level of 3982 l/ha.
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