Formation of the productivity of grassland phytocenoses of non-cultivated slopes in the Precarpathian region depending on the modes of use and fertilization
The article is a study in soil science, with an analysis of the grassland phytocoenosis productivity in the Precarpathian region (Eastern Carpathian Foothills). The analysis of the level of land productivity according to the modes of use or fertilization type is carried out and it is established that grassland phytocoenoses of the Precarpathian region are the main source of forage for the livestock industry, and they hold the most important soil-forming position in the ecosystem of the territory. The main reason for the rapid loss of valuable species of grassland herbs from phytocoenoses and degradation of sown grass stands in the meadows of the Precarpathian region is the deterioration of nutrient status and water-air regime in the soil.
The percentage ratio of agrobotanical groups in the grasslands is comprised by herbs, cereals, sedges. Three types of plants represent the herb group. Groundsel (Senecio congestus) is predominant species in this group. Less common herbs of grassland are starwort (Stellaria radians) and Jacob's-ladder (Polemonium acutiggorum Willd). Arctophila yellow (Arctophila fulva (Trin) Anders) dominates among the cereals.
Application of mineral fertilizers on the grasslands under conditions of the Precarpathian region at the rate of N120P90K120 with split dressing in spring and after the first haymaking at the rate of N60 provides an increase in the yield of herbs compared with the control of 125.5 centners of herbage per ha.
It is established that extensive use of grasslands on sod-podzolic soils of the Precarpathian region leads to the development of degradation processes in the soil, decreases the resistance of perennial grasses to adverse habitat conditions. The main signs of degradation of cultivated meadows are the decrease of nutrient content in soil, soil dehumification, reduction in the productivity of phytocoenoses, decrease of the phytocoenoses of grasses and an increase in the number of grasses in the botanical composition, reduction of the area of projective cover of soil by plants, degrowth of inflorescence of grasses, decrease of the number of rhizome species of grassland plants.
Based on this, the article also proposes ways to preserve and improve the productivity of grassland phytocoenoses and the studied types of soils.
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