The effectiveness of digestate application in cultivation of carrot and red beet

Keywords: carrot, beet, digestate, biogas plants, Effluent, root crop weight

Abstract

Purpose. To highlight the features of influence of bioorganic fertilizer Effluent, obtained on the basis of anaerobic fermentation of pig manure in a biogas plant, on the productivity and yield structure of carrot and beet; to substantiate effective norms of the Effluent bioorganic fertilizer application in modern technologies of cultivation of carrot and beet. Methods. Observation, comparison, analysis and synthesis, system analysis and forecast. Determination of yield structure and productivity was performed according to generally accepted methods. Results. The largest diameter of the root crop (6.0 cm) in the Bolivar F1 carrot hybrid was obtained by applying the organic fertilizer Effluent at the rate of 55 t/ha in combination with mineral fertilizer (N90P90K90). Application of fertilizers provides an increase in the carrot root diameter by 0.6-2.4 cm, the weight of the tops by 11.4-24.3 g compared to the control. The highest total yield (67.66 t/ha) of carrots of the Bolivar F1 hybrid was got on the variant with applying 55

t/ha of bioorganic fertilizer Effluent in combination with mineral fertilizers (N90P90K90), of which 54.05 t/ha of root crops or 79.89% to the total yield were of saleable quality, and only 13.61 ton, or 20.11% were non-standard. Application of bioorganic fertilizer Effluent and mineral fertilizers provided an increase in the diameter of the root of the hybrid beet Kestrel F1 by 1.03-4.12 cm compared with the control. The weight of root crops under control (without fertilizers), for two years of the research amounted to 145.4 g, the introduction of water at the rate of 45 t/ha provided an increase in root mass by 7.80 g, the introduction of 25 t/ha of organic fertilizer – by 21, 30 g, 35 t/ha – 37.65 g, 45

t/ ha – 45.35 g, 55 t/ha – 61.15 g, 55 t/ha of Effluent + N90P90K90 – 85.35 g and application of mineral fertilizer only (N90P90K90) – by 67.05 g. The high total (99.23 t/ha) and saleable yield (84.19 t/ha) was obtained in a hybrid of Kestrel F1 beet under the use of bioorganic fertilizer Effluent at the rate of 55 t/ha combined with mineral fertilizers (N90P90K90). This result is 9.16-36.70 and 7.65-49.07 tons more than the control variant (without fertilizers and watering). Conclusions. Optimization of provision of macro- and microelements of carrot and red beet plants, due to the application of fertilizers provides an increase in the diameter of the root of carrots and beets. Most actively roots and aboveground part of the carrot plant were formed under application of the bioorganic fertilizer Effluent at the rate of 55 t/ha in combination with mineral fertilizer (N90P90K90). The ratio between aboveground and underground parts of the plant was 1 to 0.38, the total yield of carrot roots – 35-19.28 t/ha and marketability – 12.04-29.24 t/ha (15.04- 26.23%). The general productivity of beet made up 99.22 t/ha, of saleable quality – 86.23 t/ ha, which is 9.75-36.68 and 8.68-49.11 tons more than the control variant (without fertilizers and watering). The variants without fertilizers showed the highest percentage of cracked and affected by diseases roots. The use of bioorganic fertilizer Effluent provided an increase in root weight by 22.7-85.3 g compared to the control variant.

References

Lychev E. Udobreniya i alternativnyye istochniki energii iz organicheskikh otkhodov [Fertilizers and alternative energy sources from organic waste]. Tekhnika i oborudovaniye dlya sela [Rural machinery and equipment], 2015, no. 3, pp. 15-16 [in Russian].

Ryabov G. A. Ispolzovanie biomassyi i othodov proizvodstva dlya resheniya problem energosberezheniya [Using biomass and industrial waste to solve energy conservation problems]. Elektricheskie stantsii [Electric stations], 2005, no. 7, pp. 33-38 [in Russian].

Palamarchuk V.D., Kovalenko O.A., Krychkovskyi V.Iu. Pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti biohazovykh kompleksiv za rakhunok vykorystannia dyhistatu pry vyroshchuvanni silskohospodarskykh ta ovochevykh kultur [Improving the efficiency of biogas complexes through the use of digistate in the cultivation of crops and vegetables]. Mizhvidomchyi tematychnyi naukovyi zbirnyk “Zroshuvane zemlerobstvo” [Interdepartment thematic scientific collection “Irrigated agriculture”], 2020, no. 73, pp. 95-101 [in Ukrainian]

Palamarchuk V.D., Krychkovskyi V.Iu. Perspektyvy vykorystannia dyhistatu dlia pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti biohazovykh kompleksiv [Prospects for the use of digistat to increase the efficiency of biogas complexes]. Materialy IV mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychna konferentsii “Bioenerhetychni systemy” [Proceedings of the IV International Scientific and Practical Conference “Bioenergy Systems”], 2020, pp. 124-128 [in Ukrainian]

Ilona Sárvári Horváth, Meisam Tabatabaei, Keikhosro Karimi, Rajeev Kumar (2016). Recent updates on biogas production – a review. Biofuel Research Journal. Vol. 3, Issue 2, Spring Pages 394-402.

Skliar O.H. Vlastyvosti biodobryv, shcho otrymuiutsia pislia anaerobnoi fermentatsii hnoiu [Properties of biofertilizers obtained after anaerobic fermentation of manure]. Pratsi TDATU [Works of TSATU], 2013, issue 13, vol. 3, pp. 110-118 [in Ukrainian].

Kozyr V. S., Sokrut O. V., Cherniavskyi S. Ye., Tymchenko L. O. Osoblyvosti vykorystannia riznoi syrovyny pry vyrobnytstvi biohazu [Features of the use of various raw materials in the production of biogas]. Biuleten Instytutu silskoho hospodarstva stepovoi zony NAAN Ukrainy [Bulletin of the Institute of Steppe Zone Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine], 2013, no. 4, pp. 143-146 [in Ukrainian].

Skliar R.V. Osoblyvosti anaerobnoi fermentatsii riznykh vydiv tvarynnytskykh vidkhodiv [Features of anaerobic fermentation of different types of livestock waste]. Materialy IV mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii “Bioenerhetychni systemy” [Proceedings of the IV International Scientific and Practical Conference “Bioenergy Systems”]. Zhytomyr, 2020, pp. 120-123 [in Ukrainian].

Rukovodstvo po biogazu (2010). Ot polucheniya do ispolzovaniya. Izdano agentstvom po vozobnovlyaemyim resursam (FNR) [Biogas manual. From production to use. Published by the Renewable Resources Agency]. Gyultsov, 215 р. [inRussian].

Kravchenko S. A. Byoenergeticheskiy kompleks po obezzarazhyvaniyu otkhodov selskogo khoziaistva s polucheniyem biogaza i vysokokachestvennykh organicheskikh udobreniy [Bioenergy complex for the disinfection of agricultural waste to obtain biogas and high-quality organic fertilizers]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho derzhavnoho ahrarnoho universytetu [Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia State Agrarian University] 2020, issue 4, pp. 69-41 [in Russian].

Brone I., Allen E., Murphy J. (2011). Evaluation of the BMP from multiple waste streams for a proposed community scall anaerobic digestion. Fuel. Kidlington: Elsevier Sci Ltd. Vol. 90, 7. P. 2404-2412.

Pagés Díaz J., Pereda-Reyes I., Taherzadeh M.J., Sárvári Horváth I., Lundin M. (2014). Anaerobic codigestion of solid slaughterhouse waster with agro-residues Synergistic and antagonistic interactions determined in batch digestion assays. Chem. Eng. J. 245, Р. 89-98.

Pagés Díaz J., Westman J., Taherzadeh M.J., Pereda-Reyes I., Sárvári Horváth I. (2015). Semi-continuous co-digestion of solid cattle slaughterhouse wastes with other waste streams: Interactions within the mixtures and methanogenic community structure. Chem. Eng. J. 273, Р. 28-36.

Martsynkevych V., Kolomiiets N. (2015). Povodzhennia z vidkhodamy tvarynnytstva: perevahy tekhnolohii anaerobnoho zbrodzhuvannia [Livestock waste management: advantages of anaerobic fermentation technology]. Kyiv, Natsionalnyi ekolohichnyi tsentr Ukrainy, 24 р. [in Ukrainian].

Boltyansky B., Boltyansky O., Boltyanska N. (2016). Analysis of major errors in the design of pumping stations and manure storage on pig farms. TEKA Commission of Motorization and Energetics in Agriculture. Vol. 16. 2. 49-54.

Palamarchuk V.D., Krychkovskyi V.Iu. Kharakterystyka mikrobiolohichnoho ta ahrokhimichnoho skladu orhanichnoho dobryva Efliuent [Characteristics of microbiological and agrochemical composition of Efluent organic fertilizer]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats VNAU. Silske hospodarstvo ta lisivnytstvo [Collection of scientific works of VNAU. Agriculture and forestry], 2019, no. 15, pp. 45-55 [in Ukrainian].

Bondarenko H.L., Yakovenko K.I. (2001). Metodyka doslidnoi spravy v ovochivnytstvi i bashtannytstvi [Methods of research in vegetable and melon growing]. Kharkiv, Osnova, 369 р. [in Ukrainian].

Moiseichenko V. F. (1992). Osnovy naukovykh doslidzhen u plodivnytstvi, ovochivnytstvi, vynohradarstvi ta tekhnolohii zberihannia plodoovochevoi produktsii [Fundamentals of scientific research in horticulture, vegetable growing, viticulture and storage technology of fruit and vegetable products]. Kyiv, UMKVO, 344 р. [in Ukrainian].

Yeshchenko V.O. (2005). Osnovy naukovykh doslidzhen v ahronomii [Fundamentals of scientific research in agronomy]. Kyiv, Diya, 288 р. [in Ukrainian].

Moskov N.V., Moskova T.N., Zaiets S.S. (2003). Morkov posevnaya. Tselebnaya kladovaya Khersonshchiny: spravochnik [Sowing carrots. Healing storeroom of the Kherson region: a reference book]. Kherson, Start Ltd, 260 р. [in Ukrainian].

Teriokhina L.A. Vyroshchuvannia morkvy u riznykh gruntovo-klimatychnykh zonakh Ukrainy [Growing carrots in different soil and climatic zones of Ukraine]. Ovochi ta frukty [Vegetables and fruits], 2019, no. 9(118), pp. 23-27 [in Ukrainian].

Stefanyuk A.S., Lischak L.P. (1997). Udobrenie morkovi v usloviyah Lvovskoy oblasti. Ratsionalnoe ispolzovanie udobreniy pri intensivnom zemledelii v usloviyah zapadnykh regionov Ukrainy [Fertilization of carrots in the conditions of the Lviv region. Rational use of fertilizers in intensive farming in the western regions of Ukraine], pp. 13-17 [in Ukrainian].

Stefaniuk H.S. Optymalne zhyvlennia – vysokyi urozhai koreneplodiv morkvy [Optimal nutrition – a high yield of carrot roots]. Vcheni LDAU vyrobnytstvu [Scientists of LSAU to the production], 2006, issue VI, pp. 36-37 [in Ukrainian].

Enedi K.L., Sadovska N.P. (2016). Urozhainist buriaka stolovoho zalezhno vid strokiv vysivu [Yield of table beets depending on sowing dates]. «Molodyi vchenyi» [A young scientist], 2016, no. 2 (29), pp. 143-147 [in Ukrainian].

Published
2020-12-29
How to Cite
Palamarchuk, V. D., & Krychkovskyi, V. Y. (2020). The effectiveness of digestate application in cultivation of carrot and red beet. Feeds and Feed Production, (90), 68-82. https://doi.org/10.31073/kormovyrobnytstvo202090-06