Influence of growing technology of different intensification levels on soybean seed yield in short rotation cultivation
Purpose. To establish the influence of the soybean crops protection from diseases system on reduction the degree of damage and grain yield increase in conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone. Methods. Field, quantitative-weight, comparative-calculation, mathematical-statistical. Results. Dependence of the effectiveness of soybean protection systems against diseases (fusarium wilt, septoria, bacteriosis) and crop rotation is revealed. Application of the system of soybean protection against diseases grown in a 4-field crop rotation reduced the incidence of plant diseases by more than 2 times compared to the control, which significantly affected the level of soybean yield. In the areas of application of the soybean protection system against the most common diseases, which consists in pre-sowing seed treatment (Rhizoactive 2.0 kg/t + Maxim XL 035FS (1.0 l/t) in combination with spraying crops with Abacus fungicide (1.5 l/ha), provided an increase in seed yield from 1.89 to 2.16 t/ha (14.3%) and from 2.32 to 2.64 t/ha (13.8%) respectively depending on 2- and 4-field soybean-corn crop rotations cultivation. Even higher yields of soybean seeds were obtained from the effects of this protection system together with twice done fertilization of soybeans with Plantafol (2.0 kg/ha). As a result, the yield of soybean seeds increased on average over 5 years by 0.27-0.65 t/ha, or 13-28%, compared with the control, where soybeans were grown without fertilization, and only pre-sowing treatment of seeds with the introduction of fungicide was carried out. Conclusions. It was found that pre-sowing seed treatment (Rhizoactive + Maxim ХL 035 FS) in combination with Abacus fungicide and Plantafol fertilization helped to increase soybean seed yield from 1.89 t/ha on the control (without seed treatment in 2-field crop rotation) to 2.76 and 2.97 t/ha when using these drugs in three-field and four-field soybean-corn crop rotations or, respectively, by 46 and 57% more.
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