Influence of moisture supply on realization of the genetic potential of fodder beans
Purpose. To identify the limiting and contributing factors for the maximum realization of the genetic potential of the fodder beans productivity. Methods. Monitoring, system analysis, test sheaf method, plot collection method, variance, correlation and regression methods. Results. It is noted that the moisture supply of the growing season of fodder beans significantly influenced the features of formation of generative organs and their abortion, which was subsequently reflected in the level of their grain yield. Even in years with sufficient moisture supply (2002, 2008), the level of flower abortion was 69.1 and 74.6%, the resulting beans – 13.8 and 24.9%, while in severely dry 2015 this indicator increased: flowers – up to 84.6%, beans – up to almost 50%. The distribution of precipitation during the growing season also significantly influenced the level of abortion of fruit elements in fodder beans. The maximum level of grain yield of fodder beans (4.88 t/ha) was noted in 2002, which accounted for 81% of the realization of the genetic potential. It should be noted that obtaining a grain yield of fodder beans of more than 4.0 t/ha makes it possible to realize their genetic potential by 73-81%. The realization of the genetic potential of the grain yield level of less than 3.0 t/ha ranged from 19 to 47%. With the level of grain yield of fodder beans more than 3.0 t/ha, but less than 4.0 t/ha, the implementation was 54-65%. Conclusions. It is proved that the limiting factor in formation of a high level of fodder beans grain yield in conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe is moisture, which leads to its significant fluctuations from 4.88 to 1.12 t/ha. For 19 years of growing fodder beans in 6 years the grain yield was more than 4.0 t/ha, in 8 years – less than 3.0 t/ha, in 5 – more than 3.0 t/ha, but less than 4.0 t/ha. A strong positive relationship was also noted between the amount of precipitation and the level of grain yield of fodder beans (r = 0.835). However, the moisture supply of the region makes it possible to obtain the yield of fodder beans at the level of 5.00 t/ha and realize their genetic potential by 80%.
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