Analysis of the state of production feed crops in the South of Ukraine
Purpose. To establish changes in the state of production of fodder crops under arid conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine (on the example of Mykolayiv region) and to determine the consequences for providing feed to the livestock industry. Methods. Analysis, synthesis and comparison. Results. The analysis of the state and development of production of feed crops in conditions of the South of Ukraine is carried out. Changes in the structure of sown areas have been established. Thus, in the total sown area in 2000 the share of feed crops consisted 17.1%, and in 2019 this figure decreased to 13.9 percent. At the same time, the sown area under industrial crops increased to 37.6% (by 15.8 percentage points). Changes in the structure of sown areas of feed crops, giving preference to growing grass for hay, have improved the productivity of these agrophytocenoses. Thus, in 2000, 1.27 tons of feed units were harvested from 1 ha, and in 2019 – by 48.8% more. The rate of supply of feed unit with digestible protein (from 86.6 to 116.4 g per 1 feed unit) increased by 34.4% during the studied period. Reduction in livestock during the studied period affected the supply of animal feed. If in 2000 only 0.93 tons of feed units were produced per head of cattle, in 2019 – by 15.1% more. At the same time, the level of unprofitable beef production for meat in 2019 in enterprises was 21.3%, and the population of the region was insufficiently supplied with meat and meat products, including offal and raw fat (at the level of 53.6 at the consumption rates of 83 kg per 1 person per year). Conclusions. Non-compliance with the structure of sown areas of the main groups of agricultural crops for the formation of scientifically sound crop rotations has been established. Humidification conditions have a significant influence on the formation of feed crops productivity. The level of unprofitable production of cattle for meat is quite significant, which indicates the need to optimize the feed base. Under the current economic conditions in order to develop livestock production certain measures should be taken to stop the reduction of cattle and to increase animal productivity, including using quality nutritious feeds in the quantities according to feeding rations.
Demydas H.I., Demtsiura Yu.V. Kormova produktyvnist bobovo-zlakovykh travosumishok zalezhno vid vydovoho skladu ta sposobu stvorennia travostoiu [Forage productivity of legume-cereal grass mixtures depending on the species composition and method of grass production]. Kormovyrobnytstvo. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats VNAU [Feed production. Collection of scientific works of VNAU], 2011, no. 9(49), pp. 95- 101 [in Ukrainian].
Seredni spozhyvchi tsiny na tovary (posluhy) [Average consumer prices for goods (services)]. Available at: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/operativ/operativ2018/ct/sctp/Arch_sctp_u.htm [in Ukrainian].
Kovalenko H.V., Ivanenko T.Ia. Vprovadzhennia perspektyvnykh kormovykh kultur – osnova pidvyshchennia produktyvnosti diinoho stada [Introduction of promising fodder crops is the basis for increasing the productivity of the dairy herd]. Ekonomika i suspilstvo [Economy and society], 2017, issue 9, pp. 773-780 [in Ukrainian].
Tymchenko L.O. Spetsializovane miasne skotarstvo yak stratehichna haluz [Specialized meat cattle breeding as a strategic industry]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky [Bulletin of Agricultural Science], January, 2015, pp. 39-45. Available at: URL: https://agrovisnyk.com/pdf/ua_2015_01_06.pdf [in Ukrainian].
Stepasiuk L.M., Titenko Z.M. Kormova baza, yak odyn iz chynnykiv pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti vyrobnytstva produktsii skotarstva [Feed base, as one of the factors to increase the efficiency of livestock production]. Ahrosvit [Agricultural world], 2016, no. 21, pp. 15-18 [in Ukrainian].
Tymchak V.S. Interpretatsiia katehorii “efektyvnist innovatsii” u kormovyrobnytstvi [Interpretation of the category “innovation efficiency” in feed production]. Visnyk ZhNAEU [Bulletin of ZhNAEU], 2014, no. 1-2(43), vol. 2, pp. 39-49 [in Ukrainian].
Manushkina T.M., Drobitko A.V., Kachanova T.V., Herashchenko O.A. Ekolohichni osoblyvosti tekhnolohii No-till v umovakh Pivdennoho Stepu Ukrainy [Ecological features of No-till technology in the conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomoria [Bulletin of Agrarian Science of the Black Sea Region], 2020, issue 4, pp. 47-53 [in Ukrainian].
Derzhavna sluzhba statystyky Ukrainy. Holovne upravlinnia statystyky u Mykolaivskii oblasti [State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Main department of statistics in the Nikolaev area]. Statystychnyi zbirnyk “Silske hospodarstvo Mykolaivskoi oblasti” u 2019 rotsi [Statistical collection “Agriculture of the Mykolaiv region” in 2019]. Available at: URL: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua [in Ukrainian].
Antypova L.K., Tsurkan N.V., Adamovych A.M., Poisha L.A. Bahatorichni travy – vazhlyva skladova ekolohichnoho zemlerobstva i kormovyrobnytstva [Perennial grasses are an important component of organic farming and fodder production]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomoria [Bulletin of Agrarian Science of the Black Sea Region], 2018, issue 4, pp. 35-41 [in Ukrainian].
Matsybora V.I. (1994). Ekonomika silskoho hospodarstva: pidruchnyk [Agricultural economics: a textbook]. Kyiv, Vyshcha shk., 415 p. [in Ukrainian].
Provatorov H.V., Ladyka V.I., Bondarchuk L.V. (2009). Normy hodivli, ratsiony i pozhyvnist kormiv dlia riznykh vydiv silskohospodarskykh tvaryn: dovidnyk, 2-he vyd. [Norms of feeding, rations and nutritional value of feed for different species of agricultural animals: handbook, 2nd ed.]. Sumy, Universytetska knyha, 489 p. [in Ukrainian].
Petrychenko V.F., Antypova L.K., Tsurkan N.V. Vplyv hidrotermichnykh umov na produktyvnist bahatorichnykh trav u Pivdennomu Stepu Ukrainy [Influence of hydrothermal conditions on the productivity of perennial grasses in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo [Feed and feed production], 2019, issue 88, pp. 27-36 [in Ukrainian].
Tkachuk O.P. Priorytety vyroshchuvannia bobovykh bahatorichnykh trav dlia stabilizatsii zemlerobstva v umovakh zminy klimatu [Priorities for growing perennial legumes to stabilize agriculture in climate change]. Zbirnyk tez II Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii “Klimatychni zminy ta silske hospodarstvo. Vyklyky dlia ahrarnoi nauky ta osvity” [Collection of abstracts of the II International scientificpractical conference “Climate change and agriculture. Challenges for agricultural science and education”], DU NMTs “Ahroosvita”, Kyiv- Mykolaiv-Kherson, 2019, pp. 77-79 [in Ukrainian].
Vyshnevska O.V., Markina O.V. Urozhai zelenoho kormu odnorichnykh sumishok z uchastiu sudanskoi travy v umovakh Polissia [Harvest of green fodder of annual mixtures with participation of Sudan grass in conditions of Polissya]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo [Feed and feed production], 2020, issue 89, pp. 161-171 [in Ukrainian].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.