Agroecological assessment and production potential of meadow stands at different ways of grassing of slope lands of the right-bank Forest-Steppe

  • Yu.A. Veklenko Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Department of Field Forage Crops of Hayfields and Pastures, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0560-261X
  • V.S. Zolotar Post-graduate student, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS
Keywords: natural phytocenoses, regenerative grass stands, grassing methods, slope lands, agroecological assessment, productivity

Abstract

Purpose. To assess the relationship between distribution, microrelief structure and regenerative dynamics of meadow phytocenoses on slope lands and to establish the productive potential of renewable herbage with different methods of their grassing in the conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe. Methods. Field and laboratory research in grassland, hypothesis, dialectical, synthesis and analysis, induction, statistical. Results. A strategy was theoretically developed for restoring the forage grasslands on slopes, which provides for the selection of the most adapted species with high biological characteristics, their ecological and phytocenotic combination in highly productive mixtures, and development of ecologically safe technologies for the reconstruction of such lands on the basis of theoretical provisions on the demutational dynamics of herbal phytocenoses. The species of legumes and cereal grasses were selected for the research, which, according to their biological characteristics, are valuable fodder, medicinal, melliferous, soil-protective and phytomeliorative crops. It was found that in terms of phytocenotic properties, 40% of the species of the Poaceae family exhibit dominant properties, 40% are among the main cenose-formers, 20% are dominants in narrowly limited ecological conditions. It was revealed that the ecological structure of populations of natural phytocenoses of slopes most often consists of one dominant species and two subdominants, which are in certain proportions. Direction of the ecological strategy for the development of each species has been established and a ranked series has been constructed according to the indicators of the cenotic activity index. Renewable legume agrophytocenoses have the greatest potential for productivity with superficial or radical improvement, which in the seasons of use in 2019-20 provided the yield of green mass at the level of 27.03-47.33 t/ha and dry matter – 6.31-10.32 t/ha. Conclusions. When selecting the species composition of renewable perennial phytocenoses, it is necessary to use ecological-biological and phytocenotic approaches, according to which the species should be evaluated according to their adaptability to growing conditions, coenotic power, competitive ability, association and productivity. The best ecological resistance to growing conditions and the value of the production potential was shown by restorative grass stands based on leguminous grasses of the raised type of development.

References

Bohovin A.V., Sliusar I.T., Tsarenko M.K. (2005). Travianysti bioheotsenozy, yikhnie polipshennia ta ratsionalne vykorystannia [Herbaceous biogeocenoses, their improvement and rational use]. Kyiv, Ahrarna nauka, 360 p. [in Ukrainian].

Veklenko Yu.A., Kovtun K.P., Hetman N.Ia. (2016). Tekhnolohii vyroshchuvannia kormovykh kultur i lukivnytstvo [Technologies for growing fodder crops and onion growing]. Naukovi osnovy vyrobnytstva orhanichnoi produktsii v Ukraini [Scientific bases of production of organic products in Ukraine]. Kyiv, Ahrarna nauka, pp. 258-294 [in Ukrainian].

Veklenko Yu.A., Petrychenko V.F., Korniichuk O.V. Stalyi rozvytok lukopasovyshchnoho kormovyrobnytstva v umovakh zmin klimatu [Sustainable development of pasture fodder production in the conditions of climate change]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky [Bulletin of Agricultural Science], 2018, no. 6, pp. 25- 32 [in Ukrainian].

Veklenko Yu.A., Kovtun K.P., Yashchuk V.A. Efektyvnist ekolohichnoi rekonstruktsii vyrodzhenykh luchnykh uhid Lisostepu pravoberezhnoho [Efficiency of ecological reconstruction of degenerate meadow lands of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo [Feed and feed production], 2020, no. 90, pp. 83-97. https://doi.org/10.31073/kormovyrobnytstvo202090-07 [in Ukrainian].

Demydas H.I., Demtsiura Yu.V. Formuvannia shchilnosti siianykh ahrofitotsenoziv zalezhno vid vydovoho skladu bahatorichnykh trav ta rivnia yikh udobrennia [Formation of density of sown agrophytocenoses depending on the species composition of perennial grasses and the level of their fertilizer]. Visnyk Umanskoho natsionalnoho universytetu sadivnytstva [Bulletin of the Uman National University of Horticulture], 2016, no. 1, pp. 45-47 [in Ukrainian].

Kovtun K.P., Veklenko Yu.A., Kopaihorodska H.O. Vidtvorennia roslynnoho pokryvu na vyrodzhenykh starosiianykh lukopasovyshchnykh uhiddiakh [Reproduction of vegetation on degenerate old sown meadows]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo [Feed and feed production], 2015, no. 80, pp. 169-174 [in Ukrainian].

Kovtun K.P., Veklenko Yu.A., Samokhval T.P. et al. Biolohichna efektyvnist binarnykh bahatorichnykh bobovo-zlakovykh ahrofitotsenoziv z kozliatnykom skhidnym [. Biological efficiency of binary perennial legume-cereal agrophytocenoses with eastern goatweed]. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Seriia Ahronomiia i biolohiia [Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. Series Agronomy and Biology], 2014, issue 9(28), pp. 77-83 [in Ukrainian].

Kurhak V.H. (2010). Stvorennia bobovo-zlakovykh luchnykh ahrofitotsenoziv. Luchni ahrofitotsenozy: monohrafiia [Creation of legume-cereal meadow agrophytocenoses. Meadow agrophytocenoses: monograph]. Kyiv, Dia, pp. 153-169 [in Ukrainian]. 9. Mashchak Ya.I., Mizernyk I.D., Nahirniak T.B. et al. (2005). Lukivnytstvo v teorii i praktytsi [Meadow science in theory and practice]. Lviv, Spolom, 295 p. [in Ukrainian].

Makarenko P.S., Nazarov S.H., Diedov O.V. et al. Neodnochasno dostyhaiuchi travosumishky dlia tvorennia pasovyshch i sinozhatei na erodovanykh skhylakh [Non-simultaneously rapening grass mixtures for creation of pastures and hayfields on eroded slopes]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo [Feed and feed production], 1993, no. 35, pp. 24-27 [in Ukrainian].

Mirkin B.M. O tipakh ekologo-tsenoticheskikh strategiy u rasteniy [On the types of ecologicalcoenotic strategies in plants]. Zhurnal obshchei biologii [Journal of General Biology], 1983, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 603-613 [in Russian].

Petrychenko V.F., Korniichuk O.V., Veklenko Yu.A. Naukovi osnovy intensyfikatsii vyrobnytstva kormiv na lukakh ta pasovyshchakh Ukrainy [Scientific bases of intensification of fodder production on meadows and pastures of Ukraine]. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo [Feed and feed production], 2020, no. 89, pp. 10-22. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31073/kormovyrobnytstvo202089-01 [in Ukrainian].

Petrychenko V.F., Korniichuk O.V., Veklenko Yu.A. Naukovi osnovy rozvytku kormovyrobnytstva v Ukraini [Scientific bases of development of fodder production in Ukraine]. Kormy i kormovyi bilok: mater. XII Mizhn. nauk. konf. [Feed and feed protein: proceedings of the XII International Scientific conference]. Vinnytsia, Dilo, 2020, pp. 55-60. Available at: https://doi.org/10.31073/kormovyrobnytstvo2020conf [in Ukrainian].

Rabotnov T.A. O tipakh strategiy rasteniy [On the types of plant strategies]. Ekologiya [Ecology], 1985, no. 3, pp. 3-12 [in Russian].

Ramenskiy L.G. (1971). Ob ekonomicheskom izuchenii i sistematizatsii gruppirovok rastitelnosti. Problemy i metody izucheniya rastitelnogo pokrova: izbrannyie raboty [On the economic study and systematization of vegetation groups. Problems and methods of studying vegetation cover: selected works]. Leningrad, Nauka, 327 p. [in Russian].

Shennikov A.P. (1938). Metodika geobotanicheskogo issledovaniya lugov i lugovykh pastbishch. Metodika polevykh geobotanicheskikh issledovaniy [Methods of geobotanical research of meadows and meadow pastures. Methods of field geobotanical research]. Moskow, pp. 87-114 [in Russian].

Yashchuk V.A. Produktyvnist ta yakisnyi sklad kormu sumisnykh bobovo-zlakovykh travianykh asotsiatsii za pasovyshchnoho vykorystannia [Productivity and feed quality of compatible legume-grass grass associations for pasture use]. 2016: zernobobovi kultury ta soia dlia staloho rozvytku ahrarnoho vyrobnytstva Ukrainy: materialy mizh. nauk. konf. [2016: legumes and soybeans for sustainable development of agricultural production in Ukraine: proceedings of the international scientific conference]. Vinnytsia, Dilo, 2016, p. 176 [in Ukrainian].

Glenn-Lewin D.C., van der Maarel E. Pattern and processes of vegetation dynamics. Plant succession: theory and prediction / Glenn-Lewin D.C. et al. (eds.). London, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1992. P. 11-59.

Grabherr, G. The high-mountain ecosystems of the Alps. Ecosystems of the World. 1997. P. 97- 122.

Grime J.P. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. Chichester e.a.: J. Wiley and Sons, 1979. 371 p.

Kovtun K., Veklenko Y., Korniychuk O., Babich-Poberezhna A. Biochemical composition, nutritional value and productivity of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia scop.) by phases of plant growth and development in the forest-steppe of right-bank Ukraine. Annali dItalia. 2020. VOL. 1, 12. P. 3-6.

Rochon J.J. Grazing legumes in Europe: a review of their status, management, benefits, research needs and future prospects. Grass and Forage Science / J.J. Rochon, C.J. Doyle, J.M. Greef et al. 2004. V. 59, I. 3. P. 197-214.

Urbanska K.M. Plant reproductive strategies. Plant Biosystematics. Grant F.W. (ed.), 1984. P. 211- 228.

Van der Maarel E. Some remarks on disturbance and its relations to diversity and stability. Journal of Vegetation Science, 1993. V. 4, No. 6. P. 733-736.

Zobel K., Moora M., Brown V.K., Niemela P., Zobel M. Secondary succession and summer herbivory in a subarctic grassland: community structure and diversity. Ecography, 1997. V. 20. P. 595-604.

Published
2021-07-05
How to Cite
Veklenko, Y., & Zolotar, V. (2021). Agroecological assessment and production potential of meadow stands at different ways of grassing of slope lands of the right-bank Forest-Steppe. Feeds and Feed Production, (91), 103-115. https://doi.org/10.31073/kormovyrobnytstvo202191-09