Prospects for the wheat-wheatgrass hybrid domestication and introduction into culture

  • V. Buhayov Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher, Head of the Department of Fodder, Grain and Technical Crops Breeding, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAA
  • V. Buhayov Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher, Senior Research Fellow of the Department of Forage, Grain, Cereal and Technical Crops Breeding, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS
  • Y. Veklenko Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Department of Field Forage Crops, Hayfields and Pastures, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS
  • I. Voronetska Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department for Coordination of Scientific Research, Economics, Marketing, Postgraduate Studies and Human Resources, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS
  • L. Chornolata Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Laboratory for Quality Monitoring, Feed and Raw Material Safety, Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS
Keywords: Kernza wheat-wheatgrass hybrid, medium wheatgrass, soil acidity, productivity, seeds, dry matter, protein


Purpose. To evaluate the prospects for the Kernza wheat-wheatgrass hybrid introduction in the rightbank Forest-Steppe to obtain high-quality fodder through comparing its fodder and seed productivity with the medium-sized Hors wheatgrass of the Institute of Feed Research and Agriculture of Podillya of NAAS selection. Methods. Field (phenological observations, accounting), laboratory (determination of dry matter content, seeds, elements of their structure and zootechnical analysis), mathematical and statistical. Results. According to the results of the research (2020 and 2021) on the natural background of high soil acidity (pH- 4.7-4.8) peculiarities of growth and development of plants of wheat-wheatgrass hybrid of the first and second year of use were established. In particular, more intensive growth of hybrid plants on the 21st day after the beginning of spring regrowth and increase in height after the first and second mowing. It was found that wheatwheatgrass hybrid is more productive in comparison with medium wheatgrass in terms of dry matter yield (1.51 and 1.28 kg/m2 ) and seed yield (102.68 and 78.8 g/m2 ), respectively. It should be noted that the wheatwheatgrass hybrid is characterized by the stability of the above indicators, regardless of weather conditions. The studied species also differed in chemical composition of dry matter, in particular, significantly higher was the content of crude protein in the dry matter of wheat-wheatgrass hybrid – 11.83%, medium wheatgrass – 10.39%. The content of neutral-detergent and acid-detergent fiber in the dry matter of the first wheatwheatgrass hybrid mowing was 51.19 and 33.47%, of the medium wheat – 50.45 and 30.55%. Conclusions. Based on the research, it has been established that wheat-wheatgrass hybrid has significant advantages over medium wheatgrass both in terms of spring regrowth intensity after mowing, plant height, forage and seed productivity, green mass quality indicators, especially in arid conditions, and can be successfully introduced in Ukraine by isolating self-pollinated lines from the studied population according to the set of valuable economic characteristics and creating on their basis a new high-yielding synthetic variety.


Crews, T., Carton, W., & Olsson, L. Is the future of agriculture perennial? Imperatives and opportunities to reinvent agriculture by shifting from annual monocultures to perennial polycultures. Glob. Sust., 2018. № 1. Pp. 1-18.

Vico G., Brunsell N.A. Tradeoffs between water requirements and yield stability in annual vs. perennial crops. Advances in Water Resources, 2017. № 112: Pp. 189-202

DuPont S.T., Beniston J., Glover J.D., Hodson A., Culman S.W., Lal R., Ferris H. Root traits and soil properties in harvested perennial grassland, annual, and never-tilled annual wheat. Plant Soil, 2014. № 381(1-2). Pp.405-420.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT: Crops. URL: (accessed on 27 March 2020).

Tsitsyn N.V. (1978). Mnogoletniaya pshenitsa [Perennial wheat]. Moskow, Nauka, 287 p. [in Russian].

Upelniyek V.P., Belov V.Y., Yvanova L.P., Dolhova S P., Demidov A.S. Naslediye akademika N.V. Tsitsyna – sovremennoye sostoyaniye i perspektivy ispolzovaniya kollektsii promezhutochnykh pshenichnopyreinykh gibridov [The heritage of Academician N.V. Tsitsyn – current state and prospects for the use of collection of intermediate wheat-wheatgrass hybrids]. Vavilovskiy zhurnal genetiki i selektsii [Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding], 2012, vol. 16,no. 3, pp. 667-674 [in Russian].

DeHaan L.R., Wang S., Larson S.R. et al. Current efforts to develop perennial wheat and domesticate Thinopyrum intermedium as a perennial grain. In: Batello C, Wade L, Cox S, et al. (eds) Perennial Crops for Food Security Proceedings of the FAO Expert Workshop, 28-30 Aug. 2014. Pp. 72-89.

DeHaan L., Larson S., López-Marqués R.L. et al. Roadmap for Accelerated Domestication of an Emerging Perennial Grain Crop. Trends Plant Sci, 2020. № 25. Pp. 525-537.

DeHaan L.R., Ismail B.P. Perennial cereals provide ecosystem benefits. Cereal Foods World, 2017. № 686(62). Pp. 278-281.

Sandra Wayman, Valentine Debray, Stephen Parry, Christophe David and Matthew R. Ryan Perspectives on Perennial Grain Crop Production among Organic and Conventional Farmers in France and the United States Agriculture 2019, 9. № 244. Pp. 1-17.

Altendorf K.R., DeHaan L.R., Heineck G.C. et al. Floret site utilization and reproductive tiller number are primary components of grain yield in intermediate wheatgrass spaced plants. Crop Sci, 2021. № 61. Pp. 1073-1088.

Ryan, M.R.; Crews, T.E.; Culman, S.W.; DeHaan, L.R.; Hayes, R.C.; Jungers, J.M.; Bakker, M.G. Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops. BioScience, 2018. № 68. Pp. 294-304.

Duchene, O.; Celette, F.; Ryan, M.; DeHaan, L.; Crews, T.; David, C. Integrating multipurpose perennial grains crops in Western European farming systems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2019. № 284. Pp. 106- 591.

Marquardt, K., Vico G., Glynn C., Weih M., Eksvärd K., Dalin P., Björkman C. Farmer perspectives on introducing perennial cereal in Swedish farming systems: A sustainability analysis of plant traits, farm management, and ecological implications. Agroecol. Sustain. Food Syst. 2016. № 40. Pp. 432-450.

Bell, L.W.; Byrne, F.; Ewing, M.A.; Wade, L.J. A preliminary whole-farm economic analysis of perennial wheat in an Australian dryland farming system. Agric. Syst. 2008, № 96. Pp. 166-174.

Pugliese, J.Y.; Culman, S.W.; Sprunger, C.D. Harvesting forage of the perennial grain crop Kernza (Thinopyrum intermedium) increases root biomass and soil nitrogen cycling. Plant Soil, 2019. № 437. Pp. 241- 254.

Culman S.W., Snapp, S.S., Ollenburger M., Basso B., DeHaan L.R. Soil and Water Quality Rapidly Responds to the Perennial Grain Kernza Wheatgrass. Agron. J. 2013. 105. Pp. 735-744.

Bajgain P., Zhang X., Jungers J., DeHaan L., Heim B., Sheaffer C., Wyse D., Anderson J. “MN‐Clearwater”, the first food‐grade intermediate wheatgrass (Kernza perennial grain) cultivar. Journal of PlantRegistrations, 2020. 14(3). Pp. 288-297.

Karpenko V.P., Poltoretskyi S.P., Liubych V.V., Adamenko D.М., Kravets І.S., Prytulia, R.М. Agrobiological characteristics of spelt wheat and intermediate wheatgrass in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 2020. 10(5). Pp. 81-86.

Metodicheskiye ukazaniya po selektsii mnogoletnikh trav [Methodical instructions on perennial grasses selection]. Moskow, RGAU-MSKhA, 2012, 52 p. [in Russian].

Tkachyk S.O. (2015). Metodyka provedennya ekspertyzy sortiv roslyn hrupy tekhnichnykh ta kormovykh na prydatnist do poshyrennia v Ukraini (PSP) [Methods of examination of plant varieties of technical and fodder for suitability for distribution in Ukraine, 3rd ed.]. Vinnytsia, Nilan-LTD, 73 p. [in Ukrainian].

Ushkarenko V.O., Nikishenko V.L., Holoborodko S.P., Kokovikhin S.V. (2009). Dyspersiinyi i koreliatsiinyi analiz rezultativ poliovykh doslidiv: monohrafiia [Dispersion and correlation analysis of the results of field experiments: monograph]. Kherson, Ailant, 372 p. [in Ukrainian].

How to Cite
Buhayov, V., Buhayov, V., Veklenko, Y., Voronetska, I., & Chornolata, L. (2021). Prospects for the wheat-wheatgrass hybrid domestication and introduction into culture. Feeds and Feed Production, (92), 31-42.