Comparative analysis of mycotoxin content in grains of cereal crops
Purpose. To establish the presence and range of mycotoxins in feed grains widely used in farm animal feed. Methods. The content of mycotoxins was determined in grain samples of cereals (wheat, barley, corn, oats). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Sunrise analyzer was used for determination. The method involves the use of test systems (manufactured by “Neogen”), which allow to determine six major mycotoxins: aflatoxin, deoxynivalenone, zearalenone, fumonisin, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin. The basis of this method is the attachment to the antibody enzyme label, which allows taking into account the result of the antigen-antibody reaction on detecting enzymatic activity or changing its level. The antibody is specific for a particular type of mycotoxin. Results. The most harmful of the known mycotoxins are aflatoxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin, fuminisin. Determination of the first four was carried out in the feed grain of cereals (wheat, barley, oats, corn). The content of aflatoxin was within the range 0.017-0.21 mg/kg, an acceptable level in accordance with the standards (0.1 mg/kg). The amount of zearalenone ranged from 0.10 mg/kg to 3.51 mg/kg at an acceptable level of 3.0 mg/kg. As to deoxynivalenone, the content of this mycotoxin ranged from 0.52 mg/kg to 3.14 mg/kg at an acceptable level of 3.0 mg/kg. Contamination of feed grains with mycotoxin T-2 toxin is defined in the range 0.02-0.60 mg/kg at its permissible level 0.2 mg/kg. The maximum level of each of the mycotoxins was determined in corn grain, which is most often infected with molds. Currently, the only way to hold in check these hazardous substances is to control their content and make every effort to reduce their amount in feed and raw materials. Conclusion. Analyzing the data of the conducted researches, it can be stated that among all grain cereals corn is the most often affected by molds, so the content of mycotoxins in this feed is the highest. Determination of the content of aflatoxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and other mycotoxins in grain and feed is aimed at preventing their negative impact on animals and humans.
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